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Just Be Rich ūü§∑‚Äć‚ôāÔłŹ

No one wants to be the bad guy.

When nar¬≠ra¬≠tives be¬≠gin to shift and the once good guys are la¬≠belled as bad it‚Äôs not sur¬≠pris¬≠ing they Ô¨Āght back. They‚Äôll point to crit¬≠i¬≠cisms as ex¬≠ag¬≠ger¬≠a¬≠tions. Their faults as mis¬≠un¬≠der¬≠stand¬≠ings.

Today’s freshly or­dained bad guys are the in­vestors and CEOs of Silicon Valley.

Once cham¬≠pi¬≠oned as the Ô¨āag¬≠bear¬≠ers of in¬≠no¬≠va¬≠tion and de¬≠moc¬≠ra¬≠ti¬≠za¬≠tion, now they‚Äôre viewed as new ver¬≠sions of the mo¬≠nop¬≠o¬≠lies of old and they‚Äôre Ô¨Āght¬≠ing back.

The ti­tle of Paul Graham’s es­say, How People Get Rich Now, did­n’t pre­pare me for the real goal of his words. It’s less a tu­to­r­ial or analy­sis and more a thinly veiled at­tempt to ease con­cerns about wealth in­equal­ity.

What he fails to men­tion is that con­cerns about wealth in­equal­ity aren’t con­cerned with how wealth was gen­er­ated but rather the grow­ing wealth gap that has ac­cel­er­ated in re­cent decades. Tech has made star­tups both cheaper and eas­ier but only for a small per­cent­age of peo­ple. And when a se­lect group of peo­ple have an ad­van­tage that oth­ers don’t it’s com­pounded over time.

Paul paints a rosy pic¬≠ture but does¬≠n‚Äôt men¬≠tion that in¬≠comes for lower and mid¬≠dle-class fam¬≠i¬≠lies have fallen since the 80s. This golden age of en¬≠tre¬≠pre¬≠neur¬≠ship has¬≠n‚Äôt ben¬≠e¬≠Ô¨Āt¬≠ted the vast ma¬≠jor¬≠ity of peo¬≠ple and the in¬≠crease in the Gini co¬≠ef¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cient is¬≠n‚Äôt sim¬≠ply that more com¬≠pa¬≠nies are be¬≠ing started. The rich are get¬≠ting richer and the poor are get¬≠ting poorer.

And there we have it. The slight in­jec­tion of his true ide­ol­ogy rel­e­gated to the notes sec­tion and vague enough that some might ig­nore. But keep in mind this is the same guy who ar­gued against a wealth tax. His seem­ingly im­par­tial and log­i­cal writ­ing at­tempts to hide his true in­ten­tions.

Is this re­ally about how peo­ple get rich or why we should all be happy that peo­ple like PG are get­ting richer while tons of peo­ple and strug­gling to meet their ba­sic needs. Wealth in­equal­ity is just a rad­i­cal left fairy tale to vil­lainize the hard-work­ing 1%. We could all be rich too, it’s so much eas­ier now. Just pull your­self up by your boot­straps.

There’s no ques­tion that it’s eas­ier now than ever to start a new busi­ness and reach your mar­ket. The in­ter­net has had a de­moc­ra­tiz­ing ef­fect in this re­gard. But it’s also ob­vi­ous to any­one out­side the SV bub­ble that it’s still only ac­ces­si­ble to a small mi­nor­ity of peo­ple. Most peo­ple don’t have the safety net or men­tal band­width to even con­sider en­tre­pre­neur­ship. It is not a panacea for the masses.

But to use that fact to push the false claim that wealth in­equal­ity is solely due to more star­tups and not a real prob­lem says a lot. This es­say is less about how peo­ple get rich and more about why it’s okay that peo­ple like PG are get­ting rich. They’re bet­ter than the rich­est peo­ple of 1960. And we can join them. We just need to stop com­plain­ing and just be rich in­stead.

...

Read the original on keenen.xyz ¬Ľ

2 730 shares, 26 trendiness, words and minutes reading time

How People Get Rich Now

April 2021

Every year since 1982, Forbes mag­a­zine has pub­lished a list of the

rich­est Americans. If we com­pare the 100 rich­est peo­ple in 1982 to

the 100 rich­est in 2020, we no­tice some big dif­fer­ences.

In 1982 the most com­mon source of wealth was in­her­i­tance. Of the

100 rich­est peo­ple, 60 in­her­ited from an an­ces­tor. There were 10

du Pont heirs alone. By 2020 the num­ber of heirs had been cut in

half, ac­count­ing for only 27 of the biggest 100 for­tunes.

Why would the per­cent­age of heirs de­crease? Not be­cause in­her­i­tance

taxes in­creased. In fact, they de­creased sig­nif­i­cantly dur­ing this

pe­riod. The rea­son the per­cent­age of heirs has de­creased is not

that fewer peo­ple are in­her­it­ing great for­tunes, but that more

peo­ple are mak­ing them.

How are peo­ple mak­ing these new for­tunes? Roughly 3/4 by start­ing

com­pa­nies and 1/4 by in­vest­ing. Of the 73 new for­tunes in 2020, 56

de­rive from founders’ or early em­ploy­ees’ eq­uity (52 founders, 2

early em­ploy­ees, and 2 wives of founders), and 17 from man­ag­ing

in­vest­ment funds.

There were no fund man­agers among the 100 rich­est Americans in 1982.

Hedge funds and pri¬≠vate eq¬≠uity Ô¨Ārms ex¬≠isted in 1982, but none of

their founders were rich enough yet to make it into the top 100.

Two things changed: fund man­agers dis­cov­ered new ways to gen­er­ate

high re­turns, and more in­vestors were will­ing to trust them with

their money.

But the main source of new for­tunes now is start­ing com­pa­nies, and

when you look at the data, you see big changes there too. People

get richer from start­ing com­pa­nies now than they did in 1982, be­cause

the com­pa­nies do dif­fer­ent things.

In 1982, there were two dom­i­nant sources of new wealth: oil and

real es­tate. Of the 40 new for­tunes in 1982, at least 24 were due

pri­mar­ily to oil or real es­tate. Now only a small num­ber are: of

the 73 new for­tunes in 2020, 4 were due to real es­tate and only 2

to oil.

By 2020 the biggest source of new wealth was what are some­times

called ‚Äútech‚ÄĚ com¬≠pa¬≠nies. Of the 73 new for¬≠tunes, about 30 de¬≠rive

from such com­pa­nies. These are par­tic­u­larly com­mon among the rich­est

of the rich: 8 of the top 10 for­tunes in 2020 were new for­tunes of

this type.

Arguably it’s slightly mis­lead­ing to treat tech as a cat­e­gory.

Isn’t Amazon re­ally a re­tailer, and Tesla a car maker? Yes and no.

Maybe in 50 years, when what we call tech is taken for granted, it

won’t seem right to put these two busi­nesses in the same cat­e­gory.

But at the mo­ment at least, there is def­i­nitely some­thing they share

in com­mon that dis­tin­guishes them. What re­tailer starts AWS? What

car maker is run by some­one who also has a rocket com­pany?

The tech com­pa­nies be­hind the top 100 for­tunes also form a

well-dif­fer­en­ti­ated group in the sense that they’re all com­pa­nies

that ven­ture cap­i­tal­ists would read­ily in­vest in, and the oth­ers

mostly not. And there’s a rea­son why: these are mostly com­pa­nies

that win by hav­ing bet­ter tech­nol­ogy, rather than just a CEO who’s

re­ally dri­ven and good at mak­ing deals.

To that ex­tent, the rise of the tech com­pa­nies rep­re­sents a qual­i­ta­tive

change. The oil and real es­tate mag­nates of the 1982 Forbes 400

did­n’t win by mak­ing bet­ter tech­nol­ogy. They won by be­ing re­ally

dri­ven and good at mak­ing deals.

And in­deed, that way of

get­ting rich is so old that it pre­dates the Industrial Revolution.

The courtiers who got rich in the (nominal) ser­vice of European

royal houses in the 16th and 17th cen­turies were also, as a rule,

re­ally dri­ven and good at mak­ing deals.

People who don‚Äôt look any deeper than the Gini co¬≠ef¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cient look

back on the world of 1982 as the good old days, be­cause those who

got rich then did­n’t get as rich. But if you dig into how they

got rich, the old days don’t look so good. In 1982, 84% of the

rich­est 100 peo­ple got rich by in­her­i­tance, ex­tract­ing nat­ural

re­sources, or do­ing real es­tate deals. Is that re­ally bet­ter than

a world in which the rich­est peo­ple get rich by start­ing tech

com­pa­nies?

Why are peo­ple start­ing so many more new com­pa­nies than they used

to, and why are they get­ting so rich from it? The an­swer to the

Ô¨Ārst ques¬≠tion, cu¬≠ri¬≠ously enough, is that it‚Äôs mis¬≠phrased. We

should­n’t be ask­ing why peo­ple are start­ing com­pa­nies, but why

they’re start­ing com­pa­nies again.

In 1892, the New York Herald Tribune com­piled a list of all the

mil­lion­aires in America. They found 4047 of them. How many had

in¬≠her¬≠ited their wealth then? Only about 20% ‚ÄĒ less than the

pro­por­tion of heirs to­day. And when you in­ves­ti­gate the sources of

the new for­tunes, 1892 looks even more like to­day. Hugh Rockoff

found that “many of the rich­est … gained their ini­tial edge from

the new tech¬≠nol¬≠ogy of mass pro¬≠duc¬≠tion.‚ÄĚ

So it’s not 2020 that’s the anom­aly here, but 1982. The real ques­tion

is why so few peo­ple had got­ten rich from start­ing com­pa­nies in

1982. And the an­swer is that even as the Herald Tribune’s list was

be­ing com­piled, a wave of con­sol­i­da­tion

was sweep­ing through the

American econ­omy. In the late 19th and early 20th cen­turies,

Ô¨Ā¬≠nanciers like J. P. Morgan com¬≠bined thou¬≠sands of smaller com¬≠pa¬≠nies

into a few hun­dred gi­ant ones with com­mand­ing economies of scale.

By the end of World War II, as Michael Lind writes, “the ma­jor

sec­tors of the econ­omy were ei­ther or­ga­nized as gov­ern­ment-backed

car¬≠tels or dom¬≠i¬≠nated by a few oli¬≠gop¬≠o¬≠lis¬≠tic cor¬≠po¬≠ra¬≠tions.‚ÄĚ

In 1960, most of the peo­ple who start star­tups to­day would have

gone to work for one of them. You could get rich from start­ing your

own com­pany in 1890 and in 2020, but in 1960 it was not re­ally a

vi­able op­tion. You could­n’t break through the oli­gop­o­lies to get

at the mar­kets. So the pres­ti­gious route in 1960 was not to start

your own com­pany, but to work your way up the cor­po­rate lad­der at

an ex­ist­ing one.

Making every­one a cor­po­rate em­ployee de­creased eco­nomic in­equal­ity

(and every other kind of vari­a­tion), but if your model of nor­mal

...

Read the original on paulgraham.com ¬Ľ

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Introducing OpenSearch

Today, we are in­tro­duc­ing the OpenSearch pro­ject, a com­mu­nity-dri­ven, open source fork of Elasticsearch and Kibana. We are mak­ing a long-term in­vest­ment in OpenSearch to en­sure users con­tinue to have a se­cure, high-qual­ity, fully open source search and an­a­lyt­ics suite with a rich roadmap of new and in­no­v­a­tive func­tion­al­ity. This pro­ject in­cludes OpenSearch (derived from Elasticsearch 7.10.2) and OpenSearch Dashboards (derived from Kibana 7.10.2). Additionally, the OpenSearch pro­ject is the new home for our pre­vi­ous dis­tri­b­u­tion of Elasticsearch (Open Distro for Elasticsearch), which in­cludes fea­tures such as en­ter­prise se­cu­rity, alert­ing, ma­chine learn­ing, SQL, in­dex state man­age­ment, and more. All of the soft­ware in the OpenSearch pro­ject is re­leased un­der the Apache License, Version 2.0 (ALv2). We in­vite you to check out the code for OpenSearch and OpenSearch Dashboards on GitHub, and join us and the grow­ing com­mu­nity around this ef­fort.

We wel¬≠come in¬≠di¬≠vid¬≠u¬≠als and or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions who are users of Elasticsearch, as well as those who are build¬≠ing prod¬≠ucts and ser¬≠vices based on Elasticsearch. Our goal with the OpenSearch pro¬≠ject is to make it easy for as many peo¬≠ple and or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions as pos¬≠si¬≠ble to use OpenSearch in their busi¬≠ness, their prod¬≠ucts, and their pro¬≠jects. Whether you are an in¬≠de¬≠pen¬≠dent de¬≠vel¬≠oper, an en¬≠ter¬≠prise IT de¬≠part¬≠ment, a soft¬≠ware ven¬≠dor, or a man¬≠aged ser¬≠vice provider, the ALv2 li¬≠cense grants you well-un¬≠der¬≠stood us¬≠age rights for OpenSearch. You can use, mod¬≠ify, ex¬≠tend, em¬≠bed, mon¬≠e¬≠tize, re¬≠sell, and of¬≠fer OpenSearch as part of your prod¬≠ucts and ser¬≠vices. We have also pub¬≠lished per¬≠mis¬≠sive us¬≠age guide¬≠lines for the OpenSearch trade¬≠mark, so you can use the name to pro¬≠mote your of¬≠fer¬≠ings. Broad adop¬≠tion ben¬≠e¬≠Ô¨Āts all mem¬≠bers of the com¬≠mu¬≠nity.

We plan to re¬≠name our ex¬≠ist¬≠ing Amazon Elasticsearch Service to Amazon OpenSearch Service. Aside from the name change, cus¬≠tomers can rest as¬≠sured that we will con¬≠tinue to de¬≠liver the same great ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence with¬≠out any im¬≠pact to on¬≠go¬≠ing op¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tions, de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment method¬≠ol¬≠ogy, or busi¬≠ness use. Amazon OpenSearch Service will of¬≠fer a choice of open source en¬≠gines to de¬≠ploy and run, in¬≠clud¬≠ing the cur¬≠rently avail¬≠able 19 ver¬≠sions of ALv2 Elasticsearch (7.9 and ear¬≠lier, with 7.10 com¬≠ing soon) as well as new ver¬≠sions of OpenSearch. We will con¬≠tinue to sup¬≠port and main¬≠tain the ALv2 Elasticsearch ver¬≠sions with se¬≠cu¬≠rity and bug Ô¨Āxes, and we will de¬≠liver all new fea¬≠tures and func¬≠tion¬≠al¬≠ity through OpenSearch and OpenSearch Dashboards. The Amazon OpenSearch Service APIs will be back¬≠ward com¬≠pat¬≠i¬≠ble with the ex¬≠ist¬≠ing ser¬≠vice APIs to elim¬≠i¬≠nate any need for cus¬≠tomers to up¬≠date their cur¬≠rent client code or ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tions. Additionally, just as we did for pre¬≠vi¬≠ous ver¬≠sions of Elasticsearch, we will pro¬≠vide a seam¬≠less up¬≠grade path from ex¬≠ist¬≠ing Elasticsearch 6.x and 7.x man¬≠aged clus¬≠ters to OpenSearch.

We are not alone in our com­mit­ment to OpenSearch. Organizations as di­verse as Red Hat, SAP, Capital One, and Logz.io have joined us in sup­port.

‚ÄúAt Red Hat, we be¬≠lieve in the power of open source, and that com¬≠mu¬≠nity col¬≠lab¬≠o¬≠ra¬≠tion is the best way to build soft¬≠ware,‚ÄĚ said Deborah Bryant, Senior Director, Open Source Program OfÔ¨Āce, Red Hat. ‚ÄúWe ap¬≠pre¬≠ci¬≠ate Amazon‚Äôs com¬≠mit¬≠ment to OpenSearch be¬≠ing open and we are ex¬≠cited to see con¬≠tin¬≠ued sup¬≠port for open source at Amazon.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúSAP cus¬≠tomers ex¬≠pect a uni¬≠Ô¨Āed, busi¬≠ness-cen¬≠tric and open SAP Business Technology Platform,‚ÄĚ said Jan Schaffner, SVP and Head of BTP Foundational Plane. ‚ÄúOur ob¬≠serv¬≠abil¬≠ity strat¬≠egy uses Elasticsearch as a ma¬≠jor en¬≠abler. OpenSearch pro¬≠vides a true open source path and com¬≠mu¬≠nity-dri¬≠ven ap¬≠proach to move this for¬≠ward.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúAt¬†Capital¬†One, we take an open source-Ô¨Ārst ap¬≠proach to soft¬≠ware de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment, and have seen that we‚Äôre able to in¬≠no¬≠vate more quickly by lever¬≠ag¬≠ing the tal¬≠ents of de¬≠vel¬≠oper com¬≠mu¬≠ni¬≠ties world¬≠wide,‚ÄĚ said Nureen D‚ÄôSouza, Sr. Manager for¬†Cap¬≠i¬≠tal¬†One‚Äôs Open Source Program OfÔ¨Āce. ‚ÄúWhen our teams chose to use Elasticsearch, the free¬≠doms pro¬≠vided by the Apache-v2.0 li¬≠cense was cen¬≠tral to that choice. We‚Äôre very sup¬≠port¬≠ive of the OpenSearch pro¬≠ject, as it will give us greater con¬≠trol and au¬≠ton¬≠omy over our data plat¬≠form choices while re¬≠tain¬≠ing the free¬≠dom¬†af¬≠forded by an open source li¬≠cense.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúAt Logz.io we have a deep be¬≠lief that com¬≠mu¬≠nity dri¬≠ven open source is an en¬≠abler for in¬≠no¬≠va¬≠tion and pros¬≠per¬≠ity,‚ÄĚ said Tomer Levy, co-founder and CEO of Logz.io. ‚ÄúWe have the high¬≠est com¬≠mit¬≠ment to our cus¬≠tomers and the com¬≠mu¬≠nity that re¬≠lies on open source to en¬≠sure that OpenSearch is avail¬≠able, thriv¬≠ing, and has a strong path for¬≠ward for the com¬≠mu¬≠nity and led by the com¬≠mu¬≠nity. We have made a com¬≠mit¬≠ment to work with AWS and other mem¬≠bers of the com¬≠mu¬≠nity to in¬≠no¬≠vate and en¬≠able every or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tion around the world to en¬≠joy the ben¬≠e¬≠Ô¨Āts of these crit¬≠i¬≠cal open source pro¬≠jects.‚ÄĚ

We are truly ex¬≠cited about the po¬≠ten¬≠tial for OpenSearch to be a com¬≠mu¬≠nity en¬≠deavor, where any¬≠one can con¬≠tribute to it, in¬≠Ô¨āu¬≠ence it, and make de¬≠ci¬≠sions to¬≠gether about its fu¬≠ture. Community de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment, at its best, lets peo¬≠ple with di¬≠verse in¬≠ter¬≠ests have a di¬≠rect hand in guid¬≠ing and build¬≠ing prod¬≠ucts they will use; this re¬≠sults in prod¬≠ucts that meet their needs bet¬≠ter than any¬≠thing else. It seems we aren‚Äôt alone in this in¬≠ter¬≠est; there‚Äôs been an out¬≠pour¬≠ing of ex¬≠cite¬≠ment from the com¬≠mu¬≠nity to drive OpenSearch, and ques¬≠tions about how we plan to work to¬≠gether.

We’ve taken a num­ber of steps to make it easy to col­lab­o­rate on OpenSearch’s de­vel­op­ment. The en­tire code base is un­der the Apache 2.0 li­cense, and we don’t ask for a con­trib­u­tor li­cense agree­ment (CLA). This makes it easy for any­one to con­tribute. We’re also keep­ing the code base well-struc­tured and mod­u­lar, so every­one can eas­ily mod­ify and ex­tend it for their own uses.

Amazon is the pri¬≠mary stew¬≠ard and main¬≠tainer of OpenSearch to¬≠day, and we have pro¬≠posed guid¬≠ing prin¬≠ci¬≠ples for de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment that make it clear that any¬≠one can be a val¬≠ued stake¬≠holder in the pro¬≠ject. We in¬≠vite every¬≠one to pro¬≠vide feed¬≠back and start con¬≠tribut¬≠ing to OpenSearch. As we work to¬≠gether in the open, we ex¬≠pect to un¬≠cover the best ways to col¬≠lab¬≠o¬≠rate and em¬≠power all in¬≠ter¬≠ested stake¬≠hold¬≠ers to share in de¬≠ci¬≠sion mak¬≠ing. Cultivating the right gov¬≠er¬≠nance ap¬≠proach for an open source pro¬≠ject re¬≠quires thought¬≠ful de¬≠lib¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion with the com¬≠mu¬≠nity. We‚Äôre con¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠dent that we can Ô¨Ānd the best ap¬≠proach to¬≠gether over time.

Getting OpenSearch to this point re¬≠quired sub¬≠stan¬≠tial work to re¬≠move Elastic com¬≠mer¬≠cial li¬≠censed fea¬≠tures, code, and brand¬≠ing. The OpenSearch re¬≠pos we made avail¬≠able to¬≠day are a foun¬≠da¬≠tion on which every¬≠one can build and in¬≠no¬≠vate. You should con¬≠sider the ini¬≠tial code to be at an al¬≠pha stage ‚ÄĒ it is not com¬≠plete, not thor¬≠oughly tested, and not suit¬≠able for pro¬≠duc¬≠tion use. We are plan¬≠ning to re¬≠lease a beta in the next few weeks, and ex¬≠pect it to sta¬≠bi¬≠lize and be ready for pro¬≠duc¬≠tion by early sum¬≠mer (mid-2021).

The code base is ready, how­ever, for your con­tri­bu­tions, feed­back, and par­tic­i­pa­tion. To get go­ing with the re­pos, grab the source from GitHub and build it your­self:

Once you’ve cloned the re­pos, see what you can do. These re­pos are un­der ac­tive con­struc­tion, so what works or does­n’t work will change from mo­ment to mo­ment. Some tasks you can do to help in­clude:

* See what you can get run­ning in your en­vi­ron­ment.

* Debug any is¬≠sues you do Ô¨Ānd and sub¬≠mit PRs.

* Take a look at the con­tribut­ing guides (OpenSearch, OpenSearch Dashboards) and de­vel­oper guides (OpenSearch, OpenSearch Dashboards) to make sure they are clear and un­der­stand­able to you.

Once you have OpenSearch and OpenSearch Dashboards run­ning:

* Test any cus­tom plu­g­ins or code you use and re­port what breaks.

* Run a sam­ple work­load and get in touch if it be­haves dif­fer­ently from your pre­vi­ous setup.

* Connect it to any ex¬≠ter¬≠nal tools‚Ää/‚Ääli¬≠braries and Ô¨Ānd out what works as ex¬≠pected.

We en¬≠cour¬≠age every¬≠body to en¬≠gage with the OpenSearch com¬≠mu¬≠nity. We have launched a com¬≠mu¬≠nity site at opensearch.org. Our fo¬≠rums are where we col¬≠lab¬≠o¬≠rate and make de¬≠ci¬≠sions. We wel¬≠come pull re¬≠quests through GitHub to Ô¨Āx bugs, im¬≠prove per¬≠for¬≠mance and sta¬≠bil¬≠ity, or add new fea¬≠tures. Keep an eye out for ‚Äúhelp-wanted‚ÄĚ tags on is¬≠sues.

We’re so thrilled to have you along with us on this jour­ney, and we can’t wait to see where it leads. We look for­ward to be­ing part of a grow­ing com­mu­nity that dri­ves OpenSearch to be­come soft­ware that every­one wants to in­no­vate on and use.

...

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gitlet.js

The repos­i­tory is put into the merge state. The

MERGE_HEAD Ô¨Āle is writ¬≠ten and its con¬≠tents set to

giver¬≠Hash. The MERGE_MSG Ô¨Āle is writ¬≠ten and its con¬≠tents set to a boil¬≠er¬≠plate merge com¬≠mit mes¬≠sage. A merge diff is cre¬≠ated that will turn the con¬≠tents of re¬≠ceiver into the con¬≠tents of giver. This con¬≠tains the path of every Ô¨Āle that is dif¬≠fer¬≠ent and whether it was added, re¬≠moved or mod¬≠i¬≠Ô¨Āed, or is in con¬≠Ô¨āict. Added Ô¨Āles are added to the in¬≠dex and work¬≠ing copy. Removed Ô¨Āles are re¬≠moved from the in¬≠dex and work¬≠ing copy. ModiÔ¨Āed Ô¨Āles are mod¬≠i¬≠Ô¨Āed in the in¬≠dex and work¬≠ing copy. Files that are in con¬≠Ô¨āict are writ¬≠ten to the work¬≠ing copy to in¬≠clude the re¬≠ceiver and giver ver¬≠sions. Both the re¬≠ceiver and giver ver¬≠sions are writ¬≠ten to the in¬≠dex.

...

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A High-Performance Arm Server CPU For Use In Big AI Systems

NVIDIA Unveils Grace: A High-Performance Arm Server CPU For Use In Big AI Systems

Kicking off an¬≠other busy Spring GPU Technology Conference for NVIDIA, this morn¬≠ing the graph¬≠ics and ac¬≠cel¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tor de¬≠signer is an¬≠nounc¬≠ing that they are go¬≠ing to once again de¬≠sign their own Arm-based CPU/SoC. Dubbed Grace — af¬≠ter Grace Hopper, the com¬≠puter pro¬≠gram¬≠ming pi¬≠o¬≠neer and US Navy rear ad¬≠mi¬≠ral — the CPU is NVIDIA‚Äôs lat¬≠est stab at more fully ver¬≠ti¬≠cally in¬≠te¬≠grat¬≠ing their hard¬≠ware stack by be¬≠ing able to of¬≠fer a high-per¬≠for¬≠mance CPU along¬≠side their reg¬≠u¬≠lar GPU wares. According to NVIDIA, the chip is be¬≠ing de¬≠signed specif¬≠i¬≠cally for large-scale neural net¬≠work work¬≠loads, and is ex¬≠pected to be¬≠come avail¬≠able in NVIDIA prod¬≠ucts in 2023.

With two years to go un¬≠til the chip is ready, NVIDIA is play¬≠ing things rel¬≠a¬≠tively coy at this time. The com¬≠pany is of¬≠fer¬≠ing only lim¬≠ited de¬≠tails for the chip — it will be based on a fu¬≠ture it¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion of Arm‚Äôs Neoverse cores, for ex¬≠am¬≠ple — as to¬≠day‚Äôs an¬≠nounce¬≠ment is a bit more fo¬≠cused on NVIDIA‚Äôs fu¬≠ture work¬≠Ô¨āow model than it is speeds and feeds. If noth¬≠ing else, the com¬≠pany is mak¬≠ing it clear early on that, at least for now, Grace is an in¬≠ter¬≠nal prod¬≠uct for NVIDIA, to be of¬≠fered as part of their larger server of¬≠fer¬≠ings. The com¬≠pany is¬≠n‚Äôt di¬≠rectly gun¬≠ning for the Intel Xeon or AMD EPYC server mar¬≠ket, but in¬≠stead they are build¬≠ing their own chip to com¬≠ple¬≠ment their GPU of¬≠fer¬≠ings, cre¬≠at¬≠ing a spe¬≠cial¬≠ized chip that can di¬≠rectly con¬≠nect to their GPUs and help han¬≠dle enor¬≠mous, tril¬≠lion pa¬≠ra¬≠me¬≠ter AI mod¬≠els.

More broadly speak¬≠ing, Grace is de¬≠signed to Ô¨Āll the CPU-sized hole in NVIDIA‚Äôs AI server of¬≠fer¬≠ings. The com¬≠pa¬≠ny‚Äôs GPUs are in¬≠cred¬≠i¬≠bly well-suited for cer¬≠tain classes of deep learn¬≠ing work¬≠loads, but not all work¬≠loads are purely GPU-bound, if only be¬≠cause a CPU is needed to keep the GPUs fed. NVIDIA‚Äôs cur¬≠rent server of¬≠fer¬≠ings, in turn, typ¬≠i¬≠cally rely on AMD‚Äôs EPYC proces¬≠sors, which are very fast for gen¬≠eral com¬≠pute pur¬≠poses, but lack the kind of high-speed I/O and deep learn¬≠ing op¬≠ti¬≠miza¬≠tions that NVIDIA is look¬≠ing for. In par¬≠tic¬≠u¬≠lar, NVIDIA is cur¬≠rently bot¬≠tle¬≠necked by the use of PCI Express for CPU-GPU con¬≠nec¬≠tiv¬≠ity; their GPUs can talk quickly amongst them¬≠selves via NVLink, but not back to the host CPU or sys¬≠tem RAM.

The so­lu­tion to the prob­lem, as was the case even be­fore Grace, is to use NVLink for CPU-GPU com­mu­ni­ca­tions. Previously NVIDIA has worked with the OpenPOWER foun­da­tion to get NVLink into POWER9 for ex­actly this rea­son, how­ever that re­la­tion­ship is seem­ingly on its way out, both as POWER’s pop­u­lar­ity wanes and POWER10 is skip­ping NVLink. Instead, NVIDIA is go­ing their own way by build­ing an Arm server CPU with the nec­es­sary NVLink func­tion­al­ity.

The end re¬≠sult, ac¬≠cord¬≠ing to NVIDIA, will be a high-per¬≠for¬≠mance and high-band¬≠width CPU that is de¬≠signed to work in tan¬≠dem with a fu¬≠ture gen¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion of NVIDIA server GPUs. With NVIDIA talk¬≠ing about pair¬≠ing each NVIDIA GPU with a Grace CPU on a sin¬≠gle board — sim¬≠i¬≠lar to to¬≠day‚Äôs mez¬≠za¬≠nine cards — not only does CPU per¬≠for¬≠mance and sys¬≠tem mem¬≠ory scale up with the num¬≠ber of GPUs, but in a round¬≠about way, Grace will serve as a co-proces¬≠sor of sorts to NVIDIA‚Äôs GPUs. This, if noth¬≠ing else, is a very NVIDIA so¬≠lu¬≠tion to the prob¬≠lem, not only im¬≠prov¬≠ing their per¬≠for¬≠mance, but giv¬≠ing them a counter should the more tra¬≠di¬≠tion¬≠ally in¬≠te¬≠grated AMD or Intel try some sort of sim¬≠i¬≠lar CPU+GPU fu¬≠sion play.

By 2023 NVIDIA will be up to NVLink 4, which will of¬≠fer at least 900GB/sec of cum¬≠mu¬≠la¬≠tive (up + down) band¬≠width be¬≠tween the SoC and GPU, and over 600GB/sec cum¬≠mu¬≠la¬≠tive be¬≠tween Grace SoCs. Critically, this is greater than the mem¬≠ory band¬≠width of the SoC, which means that NVIDIA‚Äôs GPUs will have a cache co¬≠her¬≠ent link to the CPU that can ac¬≠cess the sys¬≠tem mem¬≠ory at full band¬≠width, and also al¬≠low¬≠ing the en¬≠tire sys¬≠tem to have a sin¬≠gle shared mem¬≠ory ad¬≠dress space. NVIDIA de¬≠scribes this as bal¬≠anc¬≠ing the amount of band¬≠width avail¬≠able in a sys¬≠tem, and they‚Äôre not wrong, but there‚Äôs more to it. Having an on-pack¬≠age CPU is a ma¬≠jor means to¬≠wards in¬≠creas¬≠ing the amount of mem¬≠ory NVIDIA‚Äôs GPUs can ef¬≠fec¬≠tively ac¬≠cess and use, as mem¬≠ory ca¬≠pac¬≠ity con¬≠tin¬≠ues to be the pri¬≠mary con¬≠strain¬≠ing fac¬≠tors for large neural net¬≠works — you can only ef¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠ciently run a net¬≠work as big as your lo¬≠cal mem¬≠ory pool.

And this mem¬≠ory-fo¬≠cused strat¬≠egy is re¬≠Ô¨āected in the mem¬≠ory pool de¬≠sign of Grace, as well. Since NVIDIA is putting the CPU on a shared pack¬≠age with the GPU, they‚Äôre go¬≠ing to put the RAM down right next to it. Grace-equipped GPU mod¬≠ules will in¬≠clude a to-be-de¬≠ter¬≠mined amount of LPDDR5x mem¬≠ory, with NVIDIA tar¬≠get¬≠ing at least 500GB/sec of mem¬≠ory band¬≠width. Besides be¬≠ing what‚Äôs likely to be the high¬≠est-band¬≠width non-graph¬≠ics mem¬≠ory op¬≠tion in 2023, NVIDIA is tout¬≠ing the use of LPDDR5x as a gain for en¬≠ergy ef¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠ciency, ow¬≠ing to the tech¬≠nol¬≠o¬≠gy‚Äôs mo¬≠bile-fo¬≠cused roots and very short trace lengths. And, since this is a server part, Grace‚Äôs mem¬≠ory will be ECC-enabled, as well.

As for CPU per¬≠for¬≠mance, this is ac¬≠tu¬≠ally the part where NVIDIA has said the least. The com¬≠pany will be us¬≠ing a fu¬≠ture gen¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion of Arm‚Äôs Neoverse CPU cores, where the ini¬≠tial N1 de¬≠sign has al¬≠ready been turn¬≠ing heads. But other than that, all the com¬≠pany is say¬≠ing is that the cores should break 300 points on the SPECrate2017_int_base through¬≠put bench¬≠mark, which would be com¬≠pa¬≠ra¬≠ble to some of AMD‚Äôs sec¬≠ond-gen¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion 64 core EPYC CPUs. The com¬≠pany also is¬≠n‚Äôt say¬≠ing much about how the CPUs are con¬≠Ô¨Āg¬≠ured or what op¬≠ti¬≠miza¬≠tions are be¬≠ing added specif¬≠i¬≠cally for neural net¬≠work pro¬≠cess¬≠ing. But since Grace is meant to sup¬≠port NVIDIA‚Äôs GPUs, I would ex¬≠pect it to be stronger where GPUs in gen¬≠eral are weaker.

Otherwise, as men­tioned ear­lier, NVIDIA big vi­sion goal for Grace is sig­nif­i­cantly cut­ting down the time re­quired for the largest neural net­work­ing mod­els. NVIDIA is gun­ning for 10x higher per­for­mance on 1 tril­lion pa­ra­me­ter mod­els, and their per­for­mance pro­jec­tions for a 64 mod­ule Grace+A100 sys­tem (with the­o­ret­i­cal NVLink 4 sup­port) would be to bring down train­ing such a model from a month to three days. Or al­ter­na­tively, be­ing able to do real-time in­fer­ence on a 500 bil­lion pa­ra­me­ter model on an 8 mod­ule sys­tem.

Overall, this is NVIDIA‚Äôs sec¬≠ond real stab at the data cen¬≠ter CPU mar¬≠ket — and the Ô¨Ārst that is likely to suc¬≠ceed. NVIDIA‚Äôs Project Denver, which was orig¬≠i¬≠nally an¬≠nounced just over a decade ago, never re¬≠ally panned out as NVIDIA ex¬≠pected. The fam¬≠ily of cus¬≠tom Arm cores was never good enough, and never made it out of NVIDIA‚Äôs mo¬≠bile SoCs. Grace, in con¬≠trast, is a much safer pro¬≠ject for NVIDIA; they‚Äôre merely li¬≠cens¬≠ing Arm cores rather than build¬≠ing their own, and those cores will be in use by nu¬≠mer¬≠ous other par¬≠ties, as well. So NVIDIA‚Äôs risk is re¬≠duced to largely get¬≠ting the I/O and mem¬≠ory plumb¬≠ing right, as well as keep¬≠ing the Ô¨Ā¬≠nal de¬≠sign en¬≠ergy ef¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cient.

If all goes ac¬≠cord¬≠ing to plan, ex¬≠pect to see Grace in 2023. NVIDIA is al¬≠ready con¬≠Ô¨Ārm¬≠ing that Grace mod¬≠ules will be avail¬≠able for use in HGX car¬≠rier boards, and by ex¬≠ten¬≠sion DGX and all the other sys¬≠tems that use those boards. So while we haven‚Äôt seen the full ex¬≠tent of NVIDIA‚Äôs Grace plans, it‚Äôs clear that they are plan¬≠ning to make it a core part of fu¬≠ture server of¬≠fer¬≠ings.

And even though Grace is¬≠n‚Äôt ship¬≠ping un¬≠til 2023, NVIDIA has al¬≠ready lined up their Ô¨Ārst cus¬≠tomers for the hard¬≠ware — and they‚Äôre su¬≠per¬≠com¬≠puter cus¬≠tomers, no less. Both the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) and Los Alamos National Laboratory are an¬≠nounc¬≠ing to¬≠day that they‚Äôll be or¬≠der¬≠ing su¬≠per¬≠com¬≠put¬≠ers based on Grace. Both sys¬≠tems will be built by HPE‚Äôs Cray group, and are set to come on¬≠line in 2023.

CSCS’s sys­tem, dubbed Alps, will be re­plac­ing their cur­rent Piz Daint sys­tem, a Xeon plus NVIDIA P100 clus­ter. According to the two com­pa­nies, Alps will of­fer 20 ExaFLOPS of AI per­for­mance, which is pre­sum­ably a com­bi­na­tion of CPU, CUDA core, and ten­sor core through­put. When it’s launched, Alps should be the fastest AI-focused su­per­com­puter in the world.

Interestingly, how­ever, CSCS’s am­bi­tions for the sys­tem go be­yond just ma­chine learn­ing work­loads. The in­sti­tute says that they’ll be us­ing Alps as a gen­eral pur­pose sys­tem, work­ing on more tra­di­tional HPC-type tasks as well as AI-focused tasks. This in­cludes CSCS’s tra­di­tional re­search into weather and the cli­mate, which the pre-AI Piz Daint is al­ready used for as well.

As pre­vi­ously men­tioned, Alps will be built by HPE, who will be bas­ing on their pre­vi­ously-an­nounced Cray EX ar­chi­tec­ture. This would make NVIDIA’s Grace the sec­ond CPU op­tion for Cray EX, along with AMD’s EPYC proces­sors.

Meanwhile Los Alamos‚Äô sys¬≠tem is be¬≠ing de¬≠vel¬≠oped as part of an on¬≠go¬≠ing col¬≠lab¬≠o¬≠ra¬≠tion be¬≠tween the lab and NVIDIA, with LANL set to be the Ô¨Ārst US-based cus¬≠tomer to re¬≠ceive a Grace sys¬≠tem. LANL is not dis¬≠cussing the ex¬≠pected per¬≠for¬≠mance of their sys¬≠tem be¬≠yond the fact that it‚Äôs ex¬≠pected to be ‚Äúleadership-class,‚ÄĚ though the lab is plan¬≠ning on us¬≠ing it for 3D sim¬≠u¬≠la¬≠tions, tak¬≠ing ad¬≠van¬≠tage of the largest data set sizes af¬≠forded by Grace. The LANL sys¬≠tem is set to be de¬≠liv¬≠ered in early 2023.

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Intel in talks to produce chips for automakers within six to nine months -CEO

(Reuters) - The chief ex­ec­u­tive of Intel Corp told Reuters on Monday the com­pany is in talks to start pro­duc­ing chips for car mak­ers to al­le­vi­ate a short­age that has idled au­to­mo­tive fac­to­ries.

Chief Executive OfÔ¨Ācer Pat Gelsinger said the com¬≠pany is talk¬≠ing to com¬≠pa¬≠nies that de¬≠sign chips for au¬≠tomak¬≠ers about man¬≠u¬≠fac¬≠tur¬≠ing those chips in¬≠side Intel‚Äôs fac¬≠tory net¬≠work, with the goal of pro¬≠duc¬≠ing chips within six to nine months. Gelsinger ear¬≠lier on Monday met with White House of¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cials to dis¬≠cuss the semi¬≠con¬≠duc¬≠tor sup¬≠ply chain.

Intel is one of the last com¬≠pa¬≠nies in the semi¬≠con¬≠duc¬≠tor in¬≠dus¬≠try that both de¬≠signs and man¬≠u¬≠fac¬≠tures its own chips. The com¬≠pany last month said it would open its fac¬≠to¬≠ries up to out¬≠side cus¬≠tomers and build fac¬≠to¬≠ries in the United States and Europe in a bid to counter the dom¬≠i¬≠nance of Asian chip man¬≠u¬≠fac¬≠tur¬≠ers such as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co and Samsung Electronics Co Ltd .

But Gelsinger said Monday that he told White House of¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cials dur¬≠ing the meet¬≠ing that Intel will open its ex¬≠ist¬≠ing fac¬≠tory net¬≠work to auto chip com¬≠pa¬≠nies to pro¬≠vide more im¬≠me¬≠di¬≠ate help with a short¬≠age that has dis¬≠rupted as¬≠sem¬≠bly lines at Ford Motor Co and General Motors Co .

‚ÄúWe‚Äôre hop¬≠ing that some of these things can be al¬≠le¬≠vi¬≠ated, not re¬≠quir¬≠ing a three- or four-year fac¬≠tory build, but maybe six months of new prod¬≠ucts be¬≠ing cer¬≠ti¬≠Ô¨Āed on some of our ex¬≠ist¬≠ing processes,‚ÄĚ Gelsinger said. ‚ÄúWe‚Äôve be¬≠gun those en¬≠gage¬≠ments al¬≠ready with some of the key com¬≠po¬≠nents sup¬≠pli¬≠ers.‚ÄĚ

Gelsinger did not name the com­po­nent sup­pli­ers but said that the work could take place at Intel’s fac­to­ries in Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico, Israel or Ireland.

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Facebook's 'Clear History' Tool Doesn't Clear Shit

When we talk about Facebook‚Äôs myr¬≠iad foibles and fuck¬≠ups, we‚Äôre usu¬≠ally lay¬≠ing the blame on things that hap¬≠pen within the Big Blue App, or, in¬≠creas¬≠ingly, the so¬≠cial net¬≠work‚Äôs CEO. What‚Äôs less dis¬≠cussed are the com¬≠pa¬≠ny‚Äôs ties to the po¬≠ten¬≠tially mil¬≠lions of sites and ser¬≠vices us¬≠ing its soft¬≠ware‚ÄĒbut now, thank¬≠fully, we can get a win¬≠dow into that for our¬≠selves. But don‚Äôt get too ex¬≠cited.

In a blog post ear¬≠lier to¬≠day, the fa¬≠mously pri¬≠vacy-con¬≠scious Mark Zuckerberg an¬≠nounced‚ÄĒin honor of Data Privacy Day, which is ap¬≠par¬≠ently a thing‚ÄĒthe of¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cial roll¬≠out of a long-awaited Off-Facebook Activity tool that al¬≠lows Facebook users to mon¬≠i¬≠tor and man¬≠age the con¬≠nec¬≠tions be¬≠tween Facebook pro¬≠Ô¨Āles and their off-plat¬≠form ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity.

‚ÄúTo help shed more light on these prac¬≠tices that are com¬≠mon yet not al¬≠ways well un¬≠der¬≠stood, to¬≠day we‚Äôre in¬≠tro¬≠duc¬≠ing a new way to view and con¬≠trol your off-Face¬≠book ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity,‚ÄĚ Zuckerberg said in the post. ‚ÄúOff-Facebook Activity lets you see a sum¬≠mary of the apps and web¬≠sites that send us in¬≠for¬≠ma¬≠tion about your ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity, and clear this in¬≠for¬≠ma¬≠tion from your ac¬≠count if you want to.‚ÄĚ

Zuck‚Äôs use of the phrases ‚Äúcontrol your off-Face¬≠book ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúclear this in¬≠for¬≠ma¬≠tion from your ac¬≠count‚ÄĚ is mis¬≠lead¬≠ing‚ÄĒyou‚Äôre not re¬≠ally con¬≠trol¬≠ling or clear¬≠ing much of any¬≠thing. By us¬≠ing this tool, you‚Äôre just telling Facebook to put the data it has on you into two sep¬≠a¬≠rate buck¬≠ets that are oth¬≠er¬≠wise mixed to¬≠gether. Put an¬≠other way, Facebook is of¬≠fer¬≠ing a one-stop-shop to opt-out of any ties be¬≠tween the sites and ser¬≠vices you pe¬≠ruse daily that have some sort of Facebook soft¬≠ware in¬≠stalled and your own-plat¬≠form ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity on Facebook or Instagram.

The only thing you’re clear­ing is a con­nec­tion Facebook made be­tween its data and the data it gets from third par­ties, not the data it­self.

As an ad-tech re¬≠porter, my bread and but¬≠ter in¬≠volves down¬≠load¬≠ing shit that does god-knows-what with your data, which is why I should¬≠n‚Äôt‚Äôve been sur¬≠prised that Facebook hoovered data from more 520 part¬≠ners across the in¬≠ter¬≠net‚ÄĒei¬≠ther sites I‚Äôd vis¬≠ited or apps I‚Äôd down¬≠loaded. For Gizmodo alone, Facebook tracked ‚Äú252 in¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tions‚ÄĚ drawn from the hand¬≠ful of plug-ins our blog has in¬≠stalled. (To be clear, you‚Äôre go¬≠ing to run into these kinds of track¬≠ers e.v.e.r.y.w.h.e.r.e.‚ÄĒnot just on our site.)

These plug-ins‚ÄĒor ‚Äúbusiness tools,‚ÄĚ as Facebook de¬≠scribes them‚ÄĒare the pipeline that the com¬≠pany uses to as¬≠cer¬≠tain your off-plat¬≠form ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity and tie it to your on-plat¬≠form iden¬≠tity. As Facebook de¬≠scribes it:

- Jane buys a pair of shoes from an on¬≠line cloth¬≠ing and shoe store.- The store shares Jane‚Äôs ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity with us us¬≠ing our busi¬≠ness tools.- We re¬≠ceive Jane‚Äôs off-Face¬≠book ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity and we save it with her Facebook ac¬≠count. The ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity is saved as ‚Äúvisited the Clothes and Shoes web¬≠site‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúmade a pur¬≠chase‚ÄĚ.- Jane sees an ad on Facebook for a 10% off coupon on her next shoe or cloth¬≠ing pur¬≠chase from the on¬≠line store.

Here‚Äôs the catch, though: When I hit the handy ‚Äúclear his¬≠tory‚ÄĚ but¬≠ton that Facebook now pro¬≠vides, it won‚Äôt do jack shit to stop a given shoe store from shar¬≠ing my data with Facebook‚ÄĒwhich ex¬≠plic¬≠itly laid this out for me when I hit that but¬≠ton:

Your ac­tiv­ity his­tory will be dis­con­nected from your ac­count. We’ll con­tinue to re­ceive your ac­tiv­ity from the busi­nesses and or­ga­ni­za­tions you visit in the fu­ture.

Yes, it‚Äôs con¬≠fus¬≠ing. BafÔ¨āing, re¬≠ally. But ba¬≠si¬≠cally, Facebook has pro¬≠Ô¨Āles on users and non-users alike. Those of you who have Facebook pro¬≠Ô¨Āles can use the new tool to dis¬≠con¬≠nect your Facebook data from the data the com¬≠pany re¬≠ceives from third par¬≠ties. Facebook will still have that third-party-col¬≠lected data and it will con¬≠tinue to col¬≠lect more data, but that bucket of data won‚Äôt be con¬≠nected to your Facebook iden¬≠tity.

The data third par¬≠ties col¬≠lect about you tech¬≠ni¬≠cally is¬≠n‚Äôt Facebook‚Äôs re¬≠spon¬≠si¬≠bil¬≠ity, to be¬≠gin with. If I buy a pair of new sneak¬≠ers from Steve Madden where that pur¬≠chase or brows¬≠ing data goes is ul¬≠ti¬≠mately in Steve Madden‚Äôs metaphor¬≠i¬≠cal hands. And thanks to the won¬≠ders of tar¬≠geted ad¬≠ver¬≠tis¬≠ing, even the sneak¬≠ers I‚Äôm pur¬≠chas¬≠ing in-store aren‚Äôt safe from be¬≠ing added as a data point that can be tied to the col¬≠lec¬≠tive pro¬≠Ô¨Āle Facebook‚Äôs gath¬≠ered on me as a con¬≠sumer. Naturally, it be¬≠hooves who¬≠ever runs mar¬≠ket¬≠ing at Steve Madden‚ÄĒor any¬≠where, re¬≠ally‚ÄĒto plug in as many of those data points as they pos¬≠si¬≠bly can.

For the record, I also tried tog¬≠gling my off-Face¬≠book ac¬≠tiv¬≠ity to keep it from be¬≠ing linked to my ac¬≠count, but was told that, while the com¬≠pany would still be get¬≠ting this in¬≠for¬≠ma¬≠tion from third par¬≠ties, it would just be ‚Äúdisconnected from [my] ac¬≠count.‚ÄĚ

Put an¬≠other way: The way I browse any num¬≠ber of sites and apps will ul¬≠ti¬≠mately still make its way to Facebook, and still be used for tar¬≠geted ad¬≠ver¬≠tis¬≠ing across‚Ķ those sites and apps. Only now, my on-Face¬≠book life‚ÄĒthe cat groups I join, the sta¬≠tuses I com¬≠ment on, the con¬≠certs I‚Äôm ‚Äúinterested‚ÄĚ in (but never ac¬≠tu¬≠ally at¬≠tend)‚ÄĒwon‚Äôt be a part of that pro¬≠Ô¨Āle.

Or put an­other way: Facebook just an­nounced that it still has its ten­ta­cles in every part of your life in a way that’s im­pos­si­ble to un­tan­gle your­self from. Now, it just does­n’t need the so­cial net­work to do it.

...

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9 281 shares, 13 trendiness, words and minutes reading time

Building React + Vue support for Tailwind UI ‚Äď Tailwind CSS

Hey! We’re get­ting re­ally close to re­leas­ing React + Vue sup­port for Tailwind UI, so I thought it would be in­ter­est­ing to share some of the be­hind-the-scenes ef­forts that have gone into even mak­ing it pos­si­ble.

From the day we started work¬≠ing on Tailwind UI some¬≠where in mid-2019 I knew that ul¬≠ti¬≠mately it would be 10x more valu¬≠able to peo¬≠ple if they could grab fully in¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tive ex¬≠am¬≠ples built us¬≠ing their fa¬≠vorite JS frame¬≠work. Trying to make that hap¬≠pen for the Ô¨Ārst re¬≠lease was way too am¬≠bi¬≠tious though, so we had to Ô¨Āg¬≠ure out how to get there one step at a time.

We de¬≠cided to fo¬≠cus on vanilla HTML Ô¨Ārst be¬≠cause it‚Äôs to¬≠tally uni¬≠ver¬≠sal, and even if some¬≠thing like JSX would be more help¬≠ful for some peo¬≠ple, there are lots of ex¬≠ist¬≠ing tools out there for con¬≠vert¬≠ing HTML to JSX that peo¬≠ple could lean on al¬≠ready.

We also made the hard trade-off not to pro¬≠vide any JS for in¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tions like tog¬≠gling a re¬≠spon¬≠sive menu or open¬≠ing and clos¬≠ing a modal di¬≠a¬≠log in the Ô¨Ārst ver¬≠sion. I felt like any¬≠thing we pro¬≠vided would just do more harm than good, be¬≠cause there‚Äôs no one JS frame¬≠work that makes up the ma¬≠jor¬≠ity of the Tailwind user base. If we catered to React de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ers, we‚Äôd be mak¬≠ing it harder to use for the 70% of peo¬≠ple not us¬≠ing React. If we catered to Vue de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ers, we‚Äôd be mak¬≠ing it harder for the 70% of peo¬≠ple not us¬≠ing Vue. If we tried to write it in cus¬≠tom vanilla JS, well we‚Äôd be mak¬≠ing it harder for lit¬≠er¬≠ally every¬≠one (seriously do you have any idea how much code it takes to build a ro¬≠bust en¬≠ter/‚Äčleave tran¬≠si¬≠tion sys¬≠tem from scratch in JS?)

So in­stead I just doc­u­mented the dif­fer­ent states us­ing com­ments in the HTML, and left it to the end user to wire it up with their fa­vorite JS frame­work. I know a lot of peo­ple love that about Bulma, and I think it was a great ap­proach for us to start with as well.

But once we felt like Tailwind UI was pretty Ô¨āeshed out with hun¬≠dreds of great ex¬≠am¬≠ples, we de¬≠cided it was time to tackle the JS prob¬≠lem and see what we could do.

As an ab¬≠stract con¬≠cept adding ‚ÄúJavaScript sup¬≠port‚ÄĚ to Tailwind UI sounds straight¬≠for¬≠ward, but when you dig in to the de¬≠tails it is not. There are so many de¬≠ci¬≠sions to make about what to even build, and so many trade-offs you have to con¬≠sider when try¬≠ing to make some¬≠thing use¬≠ful for as many peo¬≠ple as pos¬≠si¬≠ble.

I tossed the whole con­cept around in the back of my head for a full year while work­ing on Tailwind UI be­fore I ac­tu­ally had a plan I was happy with. Ultimately, these are the core val­ues I de­cided on when de­sign­ing a so­lu­tion:

The promise of Tailwind UI is that it‚Äôs just a code snip¬≠pet ‚ÄĒ it‚Äôs easy to cus¬≠tomize and adapt by di¬≠rectly edit¬≠ing the code. Any JS ex¬≠am¬≠ples we pro¬≠vide need to re¬≠spect this foun¬≠da¬≠tional idea. The JS needs to be up¬≠date¬≠able. Unlike the markup which we ex¬≠pect peo¬≠ple to just to¬≠tally own and edit to their heart‚Äôs con¬≠tent, the JS needs to come from node_¬≠mod¬≠ules some¬≠how, be¬≠cause build¬≠ing these things right is hard, there are go¬≠ing to be bugs, and we want to be able to Ô¨Āx them for peo¬≠ple with¬≠out ask¬≠ing them to copy a new code snip¬≠pet. On top of that, we don‚Äôt want peo¬≠ple to have to care¬≠fully trans¬≠port 200 lines of JS they did¬≠n‚Äôt write around their code¬≠base, and con¬≠stantly worry about ac¬≠ci¬≠den¬≠tally break¬≠ing some small im¬≠ple¬≠men¬≠ta¬≠tion de¬≠tail by mis¬≠take.It just has to be bet¬≠ter than vanilla HTML. At the end of the day, the most im¬≠por¬≠tant thing is that we make the ex¬≠ist¬≠ing ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence bet¬≠ter for peo¬≠ple us¬≠ing the JS frame¬≠works we de¬≠cide to add sup¬≠port for Ô¨Ārst. Any time I found my¬≠self frus¬≠trated by two com¬≠pet¬≠ing trade-offs that made it hard to make some¬≠thing per¬≠fect, ask¬≠ing my¬≠self ‚Äúis this still strictly bet¬≠ter and in no ways worse for frame¬≠work X users than vanilla HTML?‚ÄĚ pro¬≠vided a lot of clar¬≠ity.

The other thing that was re¬≠ally im¬≠por¬≠tant to me is that none of the un¬≠der¬≠ly¬≠ing JS stuff was pro¬≠pri¬≠etary or Tailwind UI-speciÔ¨Āc. To me, Tailwind UI is not a UI kit like Ant Design or Material UI ‚ÄĒ those are great pro¬≠jects but it‚Äôs not what I wanted to build.

To me, Tailwind UI is a col­lec­tion of blue­prints, show­ing you how to build awe­some stuff us­ing tools that are al­ready avail­able to you. If you want to use things ex­actly as they come off the shelf you to­tally can and you’ll get great re­sults. But you should also be able to use Tailwind UI as a help­ful start­ing point, tweak it to the nines, and end up with some­thing that feels uniquely yours, even if we gave you a boost at the be­gin­ning.

So be­fore we could add JavaScript sup­port to Tailwind UI, we needed to build some tools.

Years ago I re¬≠mem¬≠ber see¬≠ing Kent C. Dodds‚Äô down¬≠shift li¬≠brary and think¬≠ing ‚Äúman, this is a cool con¬≠cept¬†‚ÄĒ all of the com¬≠plex be¬≠hav¬≠ior is tucked away in the li¬≠brary, but all of the ac¬≠tual markup and styling is left to the user‚ÄĚ.

This sort of ap¬≠proach is the per¬≠fect Ô¨Āt for Tailwind philo¬≠soph¬≠i¬≠cally, be¬≠cause the en¬≠tire goal of Tailwind is to help you build to¬≠tally cus¬≠tom de¬≠signs more quickly. Tailwind + a li¬≠brary of JS com¬≠po¬≠nents that ab¬≠stract away all of the key¬≠board nav¬≠i¬≠ga¬≠tion and ac¬≠ces¬≠si¬≠bil¬≠ity logic with¬≠out in¬≠clud¬≠ing any de¬≠sign opin¬≠ions would be such a pow¬≠er¬≠ful combo ‚ÄĒ it would let teams build¬≠ing to¬≠tally cus¬≠tom UIs move al¬≠most as fast as teams who were con¬≠tent to use hard-to-cus¬≠tomize, opin¬≠ion¬≠ated frame¬≠works.

We looked to see if there were any other tools out there solv­ing these same prob­lems, and while there were a few awe­some pro­jects in the space (Reach UI and Reakit es­pe­cially at the time, and re­act-aria since start­ing on our own li­brary, phe­nom­e­nal work by all those folks), ul­ti­mately we de­cided that some­thing so im­por­tant for our com­pany would be best to build and con­trol our­selves.

There were two big rea­sons we ended up start­ing our own pro­ject:

We wanted the APIs to work well with a class-based styling so¬≠lu¬≠tion like Tailwind. A lot of the other tools out there ex¬≠pected you to write cus¬≠tom CSS to tar¬≠get the dif¬≠fer¬≠ent bits of each com¬≠po¬≠nent, which is very dif¬≠fer¬≠ent than the work¬≠Ô¨āow you use to style things with Tailwind. We wanted to de¬≠sign some¬≠thing that was very class-friendly. We wanted to sup¬≠port mul¬≠ti¬≠ple frame¬≠works us¬≠ing a con¬≠sis¬≠tent API. There are React li¬≠braries, Vue li¬≠braries, Angular li¬≠braries, and oth¬≠ers, but each one is dif¬≠fer¬≠ent, de¬≠signed by dif¬≠fer¬≠ent peo¬≠ple with dif¬≠fer¬≠ent tastes. We wanted some¬≠thing that would be as con¬≠sis¬≠tent as pos¬≠si¬≠ble from frame¬≠work to frame¬≠work, so that the frame¬≠work-spe¬≠ciÔ¨Āc ex¬≠am¬≠ples in Tailwind UI would¬≠n‚Äôt be rad¬≠i¬≠cally dif¬≠fer¬≠ent from each other.

I was re­ally ex­cited about what we were go­ing to end up with at the end, but holy crap this was go­ing to be a lot of work.

We de¬≠cided to call this pro¬≠ject ‚ÄúHeadless UI‚ÄĚ and in August of last year Robin Malfait joined the team to work on it full-time, pretty much ex¬≠clu¬≠sively.

The very Ô¨Ārst thing he worked on was a Transition com¬≠po¬≠nent for React that would al¬≠low you to add en¬≠ter/‚Äčleave an¬≠i¬≠ma¬≠tions to el¬≠e¬≠ments, en¬≠tirely us¬≠ing classes, and was very in¬≠spired by the com¬≠po¬≠nent in Vue:

This is a great ex¬≠am¬≠ple of what I meant ear¬≠lier when I said we re¬≠ally wanted to de¬≠sign com¬≠po¬≠nents that were ‚Äúclass-friendly‚ÄĚ. This com¬≠po¬≠nent makes it re¬≠ally easy to style your en¬≠ter/‚Äčleave tran¬≠si¬≠tions with reg¬≠u¬≠lar old Tailwind util¬≠ity classes, so it feels just like styling any¬≠thing else in your app. It‚Äôs also not cou¬≠pled to Tailwind in any way though, and you can use what¬≠ever classes you want!

We pub¬≠lished the Ô¨Ārst pub¬≠lic re¬≠lease in October, and it in¬≠cluded React and Vue li¬≠braries with the Ô¨Ārst three com¬≠po¬≠nents:

We landed on a set of APIs that used ‚Äúcompound com¬≠po¬≠nents‚ÄĚ to ab¬≠stract away all of the com¬≠plex¬≠ity while com¬≠mu¬≠ni¬≠cat¬≠ing with each other via con¬≠text (or pro¬≠vide/‚Äčin¬≠ject in Vue).

Here’s what a cus­tom drop­down looks like in React:

im¬≠port { Menu } from ‚Äė@headlessui/react‚Äô

func­tion MyDropdown() {

re­turn (

You‚Äôll no¬≠tice that to do things like style the ‚Äúactive‚ÄĚ drop¬≠down item, we use a ren¬≠der prop (or a scoped slot in Vue):

Render props aren’t as com­mon as they used to be be­cause hooks have re­placed the need for them in many sit­u­a­tions. But for this sort of prob­lem where you need ac­cess to in­ter­nal state that’s man­aged by the com­po­nent you’re con­sum­ing, they are still the right (only?) so­lu­tion, and very el­e­gant.

After re¬≠leas¬≠ing the Ô¨Ārst ver¬≠sion of Headless UI in October, we buck¬≠led down for a cou¬≠ple of months to re¬≠lease Tailwind CSS v2.0, and then spent the last month of the year fo¬≠cused on bug Ô¨Āxes and lots of pro¬≠ject house keep¬≠ing be¬≠fore tak¬≠ing a break for the hol¬≠i¬≠days.

When we came back, we buck¬≠led down hard to get to work on ac¬≠tu¬≠ally adding React + Vue sup¬≠port to Tailwind UI it¬≠self, and the Ô¨Ārst thing we needed to was au¬≠dit all of the in¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tive be¬≠hav¬≠ior we needed for the ex¬≠am¬≠ples in Tailwind UI and Ô¨Āg¬≠ure out what Headless UI ab¬≠strac¬≠tions we needed to de¬≠sign.

This was ac¬≠tu¬≠ally a pretty in¬≠ter¬≠est¬≠ing and chal¬≠leng¬≠ing job, be¬≠cause it‚Äôs re¬≠ally not al¬≠ways ob¬≠vi¬≠ous how a cer¬≠tain de¬≠sign-spe¬≠ciÔ¨Āc in¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tion should map to an es¬≠tab¬≠lished UI pat¬≠tern that has known ac¬≠ces¬≠si¬≠bil¬≠ity ex¬≠pec¬≠ta¬≠tions.

* A drop­down should be a menu (well, some­times…)

But some are a lot trick­ier. For ex­am­ple, what about mo­bile menus, the kind of thing you open with a ham­burger but­ton?

If it opens kinda like a popup, is that a menu like a drop­down?

What if it slides in from the side of the screen?

What if it just opens in place and pushes the rest of the page fur­ther down?

We worked through ques­tions like this reg­u­larly, and land­ing on good so­lu­tions took a lot of re­search and ex­per­i­men­ta­tion. We’re lucky to have David Luhr on the team who has spe­cial­ized in ac­ces­si­bil­ity for a long time, and with his help we were able to feel re­ally good about the so­lu­tions we landed on.

Here’s what we de­cided we needed in or­der to sup­port the pat­terns that al­ready ex­isted in Tailwind UI:

* Menu Button. Used for drop­down menus that only con­tain links or but­tons, like a lit­tle ac­tions menu at the end of a table row.

* Listbox. For cus¬≠tom se¬≠lect im¬≠ple¬≠men¬≠ta¬≠tions where you want to in¬≠clude ex¬≠tra stuff in the op¬≠tion el¬≠e¬≠ments. For ex¬≠am¬≠ple a coun¬≠try picker where you put a Ô¨āag next to each coun¬≠try.

* Switch. For cus­tom tog­gle switches that be­have like check­boxes.

* Disclosure. For show¬≠ing/‚Äčhid¬≠ing con¬≠tent in place. Think like col¬≠lapsable FAQ ques¬≠tions. Also use¬≠ful for big¬≠ger chunks of UI too though, like a mo¬≠bile menu that opens in place and pushes the rest of the page down.

* Dialog. For, well, modal di¬≠alogs! But also for mo¬≠bile nav¬≠i¬≠ga¬≠tion that slides out from the side of the page, and other ‚Äútake-over‚ÄĚ-style UIs, even if they don‚Äôt look like a tra¬≠di¬≠tional panel-cen¬≠tered-in-the-screen modal.

* Popover. For pan¬≠els that pop up on top of the page when you click a but¬≠ton. This is use¬≠ful for menus where you need lots of cus¬≠tom con¬≠tent that would vi¬≠o¬≠late the strict¬≠ness of reg¬≠u¬≠lar role=‚Äúmenu‚ÄĚ menu but¬≠tons. We use these for some mo¬≠bile menus, Ô¨āy¬≠out menus in nav¬≠i¬≠ga¬≠tion bars, and other in¬≠ter¬≠est¬≠ing places too. It‚Äôs kind of like a menu/‚Äčdis¬≠clo¬≠sure hy¬≠brid.

* Radio Group. For cus­tom ra­dio se­lec­tion UIs, like where you want a set of click­able cards in­stead of a bor­ing lit­tle ra­dio cir­cle.

We ran into tons of chal­lenges build­ing this stuff, es­pe­cially around com­plex stuff like fo­cus man­age­ment, and es­pe­cially around nested fo­cus man­age­ment.

Imaging you have a modal that opens, and in­side that modal there’s a drop­down. You open the modal, then open the drop­down, and hit es­cape. What hap­pens? Well the drop­down should close right, but the modal should stay open.

I guar¬≠an¬≠tee 99% of modals on the in¬≠ter¬≠net would close too in this case, even though they aren‚Äôt sup¬≠posed to. But not ours ‚ÄĒ ours works!

We (well mostly Robin) spent months work­ing on lit­tle de­tails like this to make every­thing as bul­let-proof as pos­si­ble, and while I’m sure there have to be bugs hid­ing in there still some­where, where we ended up feels so rock solid com­pared to al­most every UI you en­counter day-to-day on the web.

We still have a lot of new pat­terns we want to add to Headless UI like tabs, ac­cor­dions, maybe even gulp a datepicker, and we’re look­ing for­ward to ex­plor­ing other frame­works in the fu­ture (Alpine.js is next on our list), but we’re su­per proud to call what we’re re­leas­ing this week Headless UI v1.0 and com­mit to a sta­ble API go­ing for­ward.

We think you’re gonna love it. </TimCook>

With the Headless UI stuff Ô¨Āg¬≠ured out, the next big prob¬≠lem was Ô¨Āg¬≠ur¬≠ing out ex¬≠actly what a React or Vue ver¬≠sion of an ex¬≠ist¬≠ing Tailwind UI ex¬≠am¬≠ple should look like.

The ex¬≠am¬≠ples in Tailwind UI are pure HTML snip¬≠pets ‚ÄĒ you Ô¨Ānd some¬≠thing you like, copy the HTML into your pro¬≠ject, then tweak it as much you like, chop it up into in¬≠di¬≠vid¬≠ual com¬≠po¬≠nents, what¬≠ever you want. We don‚Äôt make any as¬≠sump¬≠tions about how you‚Äôre go¬≠ing to use it, what el¬≠e¬≠ments you‚Äôre go¬≠ing to keep or delete, or how you want to ab¬≠stract away any du¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion with your pre¬≠ferred tools.

This is an easy de¬≠ci¬≠sion when work¬≠ing with pure HTML ‚ÄĒ what other choice do you re¬≠ally even have? But when of¬≠fer¬≠ing frame¬≠work-spe¬≠ciÔ¨Āc ex¬≠am¬≠ples, it gets a lot trick¬≠ier to know ex¬≠actly what to pro¬≠vide.

The biggest ques­tion was how hard should we try to re­move any du­pli­ca­tion, and what are the right ap­proaches to do­ing so?

Both React and Vue are com­po­nent frame­works, and the way you reuse code in your pro­jects is by ex­tract­ing bits of UI into com­po­nents that you can use over and over again.

The chal¬≠lenge is that cre¬≠at¬≠ing com¬≠po¬≠nents like that is al¬≠ways very pro¬≠ject spe¬≠ciÔ¨Āc. Take this list com¬≠po¬≠nent for ex¬≠am¬≠ple:

Fully com¬≠po¬≠nen¬≠tized in a real app, the Ô¨Ā¬≠nal code might look some¬≠thing like this:

It looks su­per clean sure, but it’s forc­ing a lot of opin­ions on you.

For ex­am­ple, it as­sumes the items are team mem­bers. What if you’re build­ing an in­voic­ing app and you want to use this pat­tern for a list of clients in­stead? Hell, you might be us­ing this for a sports bet­ting app and these should be base­ball teams, not even peo­ple!

It also makes as­sump­tions about the shape of a mem­ber ob­ject. It would have to en­code that it’s pulling out a name and an email prop­erty, even though your data might be dif­fer­ent.

The other is¬≠sue is that in frame¬≠works like Vue, you can only have one com¬≠po¬≠nent per Ô¨Āle. This means copy¬≠ing an ex¬≠am¬≠ple that was made up of 4-5 sub¬≠com¬≠po¬≠nents would mean you have to copy 4-5 dif¬≠fer¬≠ent snip¬≠pets, cre¬≠ate Ô¨Āles for each one, and link them all to¬≠gether with the cor¬≠rect names/‚Äčpaths.

To me, some¬≠thing about do¬≠ing all of this for peo¬≠ple felt like go¬≠ing too far, at least for the prob¬≠lem we‚Äôre try¬≠ing to solve to¬≠day. When every¬≠thing is su¬≠per bro¬≠ken up like that with pre¬≠de¬≠Ô¨Āned prop APIs and de¬≠lib¬≠er¬≠ately cho¬≠sen com¬≠po¬≠nent names, it feels like you aren‚Äôt sup¬≠posed to change it any¬≠more. What I love about Tailwind UI is that click¬≠ing the ‚Äúcode‚ÄĚ tab feels like open¬≠ing up some com¬≠plex piece of elec¬≠ton¬≠ics and see¬≠ing all of the cir¬≠cuitry right there in front of you. It‚Äôs a learn¬≠ing op¬≠por¬≠tu¬≠nity, and you can read the markup and class names and un¬≠der¬≠stand how it all works to¬≠gether.

I wres­tled with it for a long time, but ul­ti­mately de­cided that right now we were try­ing to solve two main prob­lems:

Give peo­ple code us­ing the syn­tax they ac­tu­ally need, like giv­ing React users JSX in­stead of HTML so they don’t have to man­u­ally con­vert things like for to html­For. Make the in­ter­ac­tive el­e­ments work out of the box, so drop­downs, mo­bile menus, tog­gles, and every­thing else was ready to go, in­stead of hav­ing to write all of that boil­er­plate JS your­self.

I de­cided that the right so­lu­tion was to fo­cus on solv­ing those prob­lems, and be care­ful not to do any­thing that would turn Tailwind UI into a dif­fer­ent prod­uct.

So this is what’s dif­fer­ent when you look at a React or Vue ex­am­ple com­pared to the vanilla HTML ver­sion:

Each frame¬≠work ex¬≠am¬≠ple uses the right syn¬≠tax ‚ÄĒ React ex¬≠am¬≠ples use JSX, and Vue ex¬≠am¬≠ples are pro¬≠vided in the sin¬≠gle-Ô¨Āle com¬≠po¬≠nent syn¬≠tax. Transitions are real now ‚ÄĒ in¬≠stead of com¬≠ments telling you what classes to add at each phase of a tran¬≠si¬≠tion, the tran¬≠si¬≠tion is just there, us¬≠ing ei¬≠ther a Headless UI tran¬≠si¬≠tion com¬≠po¬≠nent or Vue‚Äôs na¬≠tive tran¬≠si¬≠tion com¬≠po¬≠nent.In¬≠ter¬≠ac¬≠tive el¬≠e¬≠ments are han¬≠dled by Headless UI ‚ÄĒ you‚Äôll see a few im¬≠ports in any ex¬≠am¬≠ple that re¬≠quires JS where we pull in the re¬≠quired Headless UI com¬≠po¬≠nents and then those are used di¬≠rectly in the markup.Any re¬≠peated chunks of markup have been con¬≠verted into ba¬≠sic loops ‚ÄĒ any data-dri¬≠ven loop stuff (like lists of peo¬≠ple, or nav¬≠i¬≠ga¬≠tion items) are ex¬≠tracted into sim¬≠ple vari¬≠ables right there in the ex¬≠am¬≠ple to re¬≠duce du¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion but still keep every¬≠thing to¬≠gether in one place. In your own pro¬≠jects, you‚Äôd swap this out with data from an API or data¬≠base or what¬≠ever, but we keep the ex¬≠am¬≠ples sim¬≠ple and don‚Äôt make any as¬≠sump¬≠tions for you.Icons are pulled in from the Heroicons li¬≠brary. Instead of in¬≠lin¬≠ing the SVG di¬≠rectly when¬≠ever an icon is used, we pull them in from our React/Vue icon li¬≠braries in¬≠stead to keep the markup sim¬≠pler.

Here’s an ex­am­ple of what it ac­tu­ally looks like:

im¬≠port { Menu, Transition } from ‚Äė@headlessui/react‚Äô

im¬≠port { DotsVerticalIcon } from ‚Äė@heroicons/react/solid‚Äô

im¬≠port { Fragment } from ‚Äėreact‚Äô

const peo­ple = [

name: ‚ÄėCalvin Hawkins‚Äô,

email: ’calvin.hawkins@ex­am­ple.com’,

im­age:

‚Äôhttps://‚Äčim¬≠ages.un¬≠splash.com/‚Äčphoto-1491528323818-fd¬≠d1¬≠faba62cc?ixlib=rb-1.2.1&ixid=eyJhcHB¬≠faWQiO¬≠jEyMDd9&auto=for¬≠mat&Ô¨Āt=facearea&facepad=2&w=256&h=256&q=80‚Ä≤,

name: ‚ÄėKristen Ramos‚Äô,

email: ’kris­ten.ramos@ex­am­ple.com’,

im­age:

‚Äôhttps://‚Äčim¬≠ages.un¬≠splash.com/‚Äčphoto-1550525811-e5869d¬≠d03032?ixlib=rb-1.2.1&ixid=eyJhcHB¬≠faWQiO¬≠jEyMDd9&auto=for¬≠mat&Ô¨Āt=facearea&facepad=2&w=256&h=256&q=80‚Ä≤,

name: ‚ÄėTed Fox‚Äô,

email: ’ted.fox@ex­am­ple.com’,

im­age:

‚Äôhttps://‚Äčim¬≠ages.un¬≠splash.com/‚Äčphoto-1500648767791-00d¬≠c¬≠c994a43e?ixlib=rb-1.2.1&ixid=eyJhcHB¬≠faWQiO¬≠jEyMDd9&auto=for¬≠mat&Ô¨Āt=facearea&facepad=2&w=256&h=256&q=80‚Ä≤,

ex­port de­fault func­tion Example() {

re­turn (

It‚Äôs still a sin¬≠gle ex¬≠am¬≠ple where you can see every¬≠thing that‚Äôs go¬≠ing on at once, and you can cut it up how¬≠ever makes the most sense for your pro¬≠ject. You get to de¬≠Ô¨Āne your own prop APIs to meet your own needs, name things how¬≠ever makes the most sense for your do¬≠main, and fetch your data in what¬≠ever way works best with the other tech¬≠nolo¬≠gies you work with.

So that’s how it all works from a cus­tomer’s per­spec­tive, but if you’re cu­ri­ous how we ac­tu­ally built this stuff in­ter­nally, it’s pretty in­ter­est­ing and worth talk­ing about.

Tailwind UI is like 450 ex­am­ples or some­thing now, and con­vert­ing all of that stuff to React/Vue by hand would have been ab­solute tor­ture, and im­pos­si­ble to main­tain in the long-term. So we needed some way to au­to­mate it.

If you‚Äôre any¬≠thing like me, the en¬≠tire idea of au¬≠to¬≠mat¬≠i¬≠cally gen¬≠er¬≠at¬≠ing this stuff in dif¬≠fer¬≠ent for¬≠mats might make you cringe. For me at least, my gut re¬≠ac¬≠tion is just ‚Äúwell there goes the hu¬≠man touch ‚ÄĒ it‚Äôs just go¬≠ing to feel like ma¬≠chine-gen¬≠er¬≠ated garbage now‚ÄĚ, and of course that is not ac¬≠cept¬≠able to me at all ‚ÄĒ I want to be proud of the stuff we re¬≠lease, not feel like we had to make re¬≠ally ugly com¬≠pro¬≠mises.

So how­ever we did this, the out­put had to live up to our stan­dards. This meant we were gonna have to build a sys­tem to do this our­selves, from scratch.

For the Ô¨Ārst 2 months of the year, Brad spent all of his time build¬≠ing a cus¬≠tom au¬≠thor¬≠ing chain specif¬≠i¬≠cally for Tailwind UI com¬≠po¬≠nents that could take our HTML and turn it into React code that looked like it was hand-writ¬≠ten by a per¬≠son.

Here‚Äôs how it works ‚ÄĒ in¬≠stead of au¬≠thor¬≠ing our ex¬≠am¬≠ples in vanilla HTML, we au¬≠thor them in a sort of cus¬≠tom Ô¨āa¬≠vor of HTML full of cus¬≠tom el¬≠e¬≠ments that we ul¬≠ti¬≠mately trans¬≠form to vanilla HTML us¬≠ing PostHTML.

Here’s what one of our drop­down ex­am­ples looks like in our in­ter­nal au­thor­ing for­mat:

You can prob­a­bly al­ready see why au­thor­ing things this way makes it so much eas­ier to con­vert to some­thing like React or Vue than just writ­ing the HTML by hand.

We crawl this doc­u­ment as an AST, and ac­tu­ally trans­form it into four for­mats:

The vanilla HTML you get when you copy the snip­pet. The HTML that gets in­jected into the pre­view pane, where we use some very quick and dirty Alpine.js to demo the dif­fer­ent in­ter­ac­tions in the ex­am­ple.The React snip­pet for you to copy.The Vue snip­pet for you to copy.

The key to get­ting sen­si­ble out­put is re­ally just hav­ing to­tal con­trol of the in­put for­mat. It’s still hard work, but when you can en­code the in­tent of each ex­am­ple into a cus­tom in­put for­mat, con­vert­ing that to an­other for­mat turns out so much bet­ter than try­ing to write some­thing that can con­vert ar­bi­trary jQuery to React or some­thing.

...

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10 231 shares, 11 trendiness, words and minutes reading time

The decline of Heroku

Heroku has long been held up as the gold-stan­dard plat­form as a ser­vice (PaaS) for soft­ware de­vel­op­ers to eas­ily de­ploy their code with­out hav­ing to worry about the un­der­ly­ing in­fra­struc­ture, while oth­ers see it as akin to a mag­i­cal fallen civ­i­liza­tion with a lim­ited fu­ture.

‚ÄúThe his¬≠tory of IT is lit¬≠tered with plat¬≠forms peo¬≠ple thought were fan¬≠tas¬≠tic that don‚Äôt ex¬≠ist any¬≠more,‚ÄĚ said James Governor, a founder of the de¬≠vel¬≠oper-fo¬≠cused an¬≠a¬≠lyst Ô¨Ārm RedMonk. ‚ÄúIt had a good run and a huge in¬≠Ô¨āu¬≠ence, but noth¬≠ing lasts for¬≠ever.‚ÄĚ

Heroku’s ar­chi­tec­tural lim­i­ta­tions and the high cost of run­ning a busi­ness on the plat­form have his­tor­i­cally hin­dered its abil­ity to truly scale be­yond a core set of web 2.0 cus­tomers, but there is still hope that Heroku is set­ting it­self up for a glo­ri­ous sec­ond act.

Founded in 2007 by three Ruby de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ers‚ÄĒJames Lindenbaum, Adam Wiggins, and Orion Henry‚ÄĒHeroku was bought just three years later, when the SaaS gi¬≠ant Salesforce even¬≠tu¬≠ally beat out VMware to pick the com¬≠pany up for $212 mil¬≠lion when it still had only 30 peo¬≠ple on staff and sup¬≠ported only the Ruby pro¬≠gram¬≠ming lan¬≠guage.

‚ÄúI be¬≠lieve Heroku was one of the most rev¬≠o¬≠lu¬≠tion¬≠ary prod¬≠ucts of its gen¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion and pushed web de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment fur¬≠ther for¬≠ward than it gets credit for,‚ÄĚ said Jason Warner, head of en¬≠gi¬≠neer¬≠ing at Heroku be¬≠tween 2014 and 2017. ‚ÄúIt is also one of the most con¬≠found¬≠ing, be¬≠cause it was so ahead of its time. It looked like magic at the time, and peo¬≠ple were blown away by it, but it started to cal¬≠cify un¬≠der Salesforce. It should never have been a PaaS; it should have been a mul¬≠ti¬≠lay¬≠ered cake of PaaS with var¬≠i¬≠ous es¬≠cape hatches to build out with Kubernetes or go mul¬≠ti¬≠cloud, but that was¬≠n‚Äôt what was to be.‚ÄĚ

Today, Heroku is part of the broader Salesforce Platform of de¬≠vel¬≠oper tools, but it re¬≠mains a suc¬≠cess¬≠ful busi¬≠ness in its own right, ac¬≠count¬≠ing for hun¬≠dreds of mil¬≠lions of dol¬≠lars in an¬≠nual rev¬≠enues and sup¬≠port¬≠ing a wide range of lan¬≠guages and thou¬≠sands of de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ers who run ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tions on it. ‚ÄúSalesforce has made it more sta¬≠ble, scal¬≠able, and sup¬≠port new lan¬≠guages. The core idea of tak¬≠ing an app and push¬≠ing to the cloud with¬≠out hav¬≠ing to think about servers, with a beau¬≠ti¬≠ful de¬≠vel¬≠oper ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence, is the same to¬≠day, and I know that be¬≠cause I am a cus¬≠tomer,‚ÄĚ co¬≠founder Adam Wiggins said.

In prac¬≠tice, us¬≠ing Heroku typ¬≠i¬≠cally in¬≠volves a com¬≠mon run¬≠time of de¬≠ploy¬≠ing to a unique do¬≠main, which routes HTTP re¬≠quests to a vir¬≠tu¬≠al¬≠ized Linux con¬≠tainer‚ÄĒor dyno, as Heroku calls them‚ÄĒspread across a ‚Äúdyno grid‚ÄĚ of AWS servers. Heroku‚Äôs Git server han¬≠dles ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion repos¬≠i¬≠tory pushes from per¬≠mit¬≠ted users. There is also the op¬≠tion for ded¬≠i¬≠cated, sin¬≠gle-ten¬≠ant Private Spaces for pre¬≠mium en¬≠ter¬≠prise cus¬≠tomers.

‚ÄúHeroku was one of the Ô¨Ārst real cloud-na¬≠tive de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment en¬≠vi¬≠ron¬≠ments, and they es¬≠sen¬≠tially in¬≠vented the wide¬≠spread model of con¬≠tainer-based com¬≠put¬≠ing,‚ÄĚ said YeÔ¨Ām Natis, a dis¬≠tin¬≠guished vice pres¬≠i¬≠dent at Gartner.

‚ÄúThe thing that blew peo¬≠ple‚Äôs mind was the Git push to de¬≠ploy, which is the core idea peo¬≠ple take away from Heroku, to take away all of this other stuff peo¬≠ple thought they had to do,‚ÄĚ said Heroku co¬≠founder Lindenbaum, now a part¬≠ner at the startup ac¬≠cel¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tor Heavybit. ‚ÄúOur vi¬≠sion was¬≠n‚Äôt to put lip¬≠stick on a pig, but to re¬≠think how this prob¬≠lem is¬≠n‚Äôt a prob¬≠lem any¬≠more.‚ÄĚ

Heroku‚Äôs pop¬≠u¬≠lar¬≠ity has al¬≠ways hinged on its sim¬≠plic¬≠ity, el¬≠e¬≠gance, and us¬≠abil¬≠ity, pi¬≠o¬≠neer¬≠ing the fo¬≠cus on the de¬≠vel¬≠oper ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence and aim¬≠ing to make de¬≠ploy¬≠ment as seam¬≠less as the de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment process. ‚Äú[Heroku] was mag¬≠i¬≠cal and every¬≠one that saw it freaked out,‚ÄĚ said Adam Jacob, Chef co¬≠founder and now CEO of the System Initiative.

Ten years on, none of the orig­i­nal co­founders are still at Heroku. Meanwhile, un­der Salesforce, the com­pany has steadily grown its rev­enues but left the core prod­uct largely alone, while broad in­dus­try shifts oc­curred around it.

‚ÄúHeroku is like a fallen civ¬≠i¬≠liza¬≠tion of elves. Beautiful, im¬≠mor¬≠tal, beloved by all who en¬≠coun¬≠tered it‚ÄĒbut still a dead end,‚ÄĚ Jacob tweeted.

‚ÄúWhen I joined Heroku, the vi¬≠sion had been ful¬≠Ô¨Ālled, but it is also sta¬≠tic and has been for some time, which is the frus¬≠trat¬≠ing thing for some peo¬≠ple,‚ÄĚ Warner said.

Although Heroku helped pi¬≠o¬≠neer sim¬≠pli¬≠Ô¨Āed, cloud-na¬≠tive soft¬≠ware de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment tech¬≠niques, it took too long to adapt to the emerg¬≠ing in¬≠dus¬≠try stan¬≠dards of Docker con¬≠tain¬≠ers or¬≠ches¬≠trated by Kubernetes, said Gartner‚Äôs Natis. ‚ÄúAs far as its ar¬≠chi¬≠tec¬≠ture and its pi¬≠o¬≠neer¬≠ing char¬≠ac¬≠ter, I think that stopped with the ac¬≠qui¬≠si¬≠tion [by Salesforce]. I think they got frozen in time.‚ÄĚ

Tod Nielsen, who was Heroku‚Äôs CEO from 2013 to 2016, said from a busi¬≠ness per¬≠spec¬≠tive, ‚ÄúSalesforce did a great job of ex¬≠pand¬≠ing Heroku within cor¬≠po¬≠rates.‚ÄĚ But tech¬≠no¬≠log¬≠i¬≠cally, ‚Äúwhat they gave up was all the ‚Äėcool kid‚Äô in¬≠no¬≠va¬≠tion.‚ÄĚ

Built on AWS EC2 in¬≠stances, Heroku‚Äôs un¬≠der¬≠ly¬≠ing dyno grid sys¬≠tem nat¬≠u¬≠rally trades off com¬≠plex¬≠ity and cus¬≠tomiz¬≠abil¬≠ity for sim¬≠plic¬≠ity and speed. These trade-offs make the plat¬≠form el¬≠e¬≠gant and easy to use, but also some¬≠what in¬≠Ô¨āex¬≠i¬≠ble.

For a cer¬≠tain set of com¬≠pa¬≠nies‚ÄĒnamely those build¬≠ing 12-factor web ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tions‚ÄĒHeroku has and al¬≠ways will be a piece of tech¬≠ni¬≠cal wiz¬≠ardry. ‚ÄúIt was very pow¬≠er¬≠ful as a de¬≠vel¬≠oper work¬≠Ô¨āow that was highly pro¬≠duc¬≠tive for a cer¬≠tain class of ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion, which a lot of star¬≠tups were build¬≠ing at the time,‚ÄĚ said RedMonk‚Äôs Governor.

However, as Heroku ex¬≠panded into other lan¬≠guages, is¬≠sues cropped up. ‚ÄúI think we were pos¬≠si¬≠bly too early in want¬≠ing every¬≠thing to be sim¬≠ple, which be¬≠comes dif¬≠Ô¨Ā¬≠cult when you turn around and try to go to the Java com¬≠mu¬≠nity, with its im¬≠mense amount of tool¬≠ing and deeply em¬≠bed¬≠ded ways of work¬≠ing,‚ÄĚ said Blake Mizerany, who was the Ô¨Ārst full-time en¬≠gi¬≠neer¬≠ing hire at Heroku in 2008. ‚ÄúThat would bite us a lit¬≠tle bit when we spoke to com¬≠pa¬≠nies that wanted to build on Heroku, be¬≠cause they al¬≠ways needed some¬≠thing way off the happy path with Heroku.‚ÄĚ

For or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions that wanted a lit¬≠tle more Ô¨āex¬≠i¬≠bil¬≠ity to run ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tions where they needed, the ri¬≠val PaaS Cloud Foundry from VMware of¬≠fered a more palat¬≠able route, by al¬≠low¬≠ing for on-premises de¬≠ploy¬≠ments and the sort of com¬≠plex cus¬≠tomiza¬≠tions re¬≠quired to hook into an en¬≠ter¬≠prise en¬≠vi¬≠ron¬≠ment. VMware also in¬≠vested in a con¬≠sult¬≠ing arm, Pivotal Labs, tasked with evan¬≠ge¬≠liz¬≠ing the plat¬≠form ap¬≠proach for more tra¬≠di¬≠tional or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions like Orange or Bank of America in the early 2010s.

Heroku, by com­par­i­son, has been slow to al­low for en­ter­prise cus­tomers to op­er­ate in hy­brid and mul­ti­cloud modes, some­thing Salesforce has looked to ad­dress with the ad­di­tion of Private Spaces in 2016, which al­lows cus­tomers to run in a ded­i­cated en­vi­ron­ment, con­nect to on-premises sys­tems, and se­lect from one of six ge­o­graphic re­gions. Similarly, Salesforce’s re­cently launched Hyperforce should even­tu­ally al­low all Salesforce cus­tomers more choice over where their ser­vices run in the pub­lic cloud.

Where Heroku and other PaaS op­tions thrive is in their abil­ity to lasso com­plex­ity for de­vel­oper teams to bet­ter fo­cus on de­liv­er­ing new fea­tures for cus­tomers. The prob­lem is, most or­ga­ni­za­tions have built-in tech debt and ways of work­ing that must be ac­counted for, mak­ing some­thing as opin­ion­ated as Heroku too con­strain­ing.

‚ÄúThere end up be¬≠ing too many pieces for peo¬≠ple to as¬≠sem¬≠ble and main¬≠tain them¬≠selves, in which case we see peo¬≠ple want¬≠ing some¬≠thing like Heroku and that abil¬≠ity to just fo¬≠cus on writ¬≠ing the ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion,‚ÄĚ said Stephen O‚ÄôGrady, the other co¬≠founder of RedMonk. ‚ÄúWe hear this a lot, where cus¬≠tomers are spend¬≠ing like 40% of their time Ô¨Āght¬≠ing Jenkins, for ex¬≠am¬≠ple. The trick is to do this with enough Ô¨āex¬≠i¬≠bil¬≠ity to meet a wide range of use cases, and that is where things like Heroku have proved to be too con¬≠strained or opin¬≠ion¬≠ated.‚ÄĚ

Camille Fournier, head of plat¬≠form en¬≠gi¬≠neer¬≠ing at the hedge fund and Ô¨Ā¬≠nan¬≠cial ser¬≠vices Ô¨Ārm Two Sigma, de¬≠scribes Heroku as the ‚Äúgold stan¬≠dard‚ÄĚ for the de¬≠ploy side of the soft¬≠ware de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ment process. However, in her ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence, ‚Äúdevelopers will start to meet the lim¬≠its of what a plat¬≠form like Heroku can pro¬≠vide and start to veer off of that path.‚ÄĚ

Fournier be¬≠lieves that any quickly grow¬≠ing en¬≠gi¬≠neer¬≠ing or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tion will con¬≠front these lim¬≠its even¬≠tu¬≠ally. ‚ÄúIt tends to be¬≠come ob¬≠vi¬≠ous when you need to build your own plat¬≠form. If you are us¬≠ing Heroku you will hit scal¬≠ing lim¬≠its and see teams peel off and do their own thing,‚ÄĚ she said.

Many or¬≠ga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions that do de¬≠cide to break away from Heroku‚ÄĒlike the stream¬≠ing plat¬≠form Hulu‚ÄĒare look¬≠ing to build their own in¬≠ter¬≠nal plat¬≠form, work¬≠ing count¬≠less hours to chase the vi¬≠sion of a plat¬≠form that re¬≠sem¬≠bles the Heroku ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence, but meets spe¬≠ciÔ¨Āc re¬≠quire¬≠ments of their busi¬≠ness.

‚ÄúThe mod¬≠ern tech in¬≠dus¬≠try is ba¬≠si¬≠cally folks just end¬≠lessly re¬≠mak¬≠ing re¬≠makes of Heroku,‚ÄĚ RedMonk an¬≠a¬≠lyst Governor has tweeted. ‚ÄúWhen some¬≠thing is that beau¬≠ti¬≠ful, it is not sur¬≠pris¬≠ing that it spawned its own sub¬≠genre,‚ÄĚ Jacob said.

It is of¬≠ten said that while not many peo¬≠ple bought Velvet Underground records, those who did went out and started a band. For soft¬≠ware de¬≠vel¬≠op¬≠ers of a cer¬≠tain era, Heroku car¬≠ries a sim¬≠i¬≠lar legacy. Every de¬≠vel¬≠oper who came into con¬≠tact with Heroku con¬≠tin¬≠ues to chase some ver¬≠sion of that leg¬≠endary de¬≠vel¬≠oper ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence to¬≠day. ‚ÄúIt ab¬≠solutely is the Velvet Underground of de¬≠vel¬≠oper plat¬≠forms,‚ÄĚ Jacob said.

But there‚Äôs a cost, Jacob noted: ‚ÄúEveryone who touched it has an opin¬≠ion. The prob¬≠lem is those opin¬≠ions aren‚Äôt just opin¬≠ions, they are hard con¬≠straints when you run a busi¬≠ness on soft¬≠ware. It‚Äôs not fun¬≠gi¬≠ble and, con¬≠trary to pop¬≠u¬≠lar be¬≠lief, those con¬≠straints are in fact unique.‚ÄĚ

That be¬≠ing said, for many early Heroku en¬≠gi¬≠neers like Mizerany, im¬≠i¬≠ta¬≠tion re¬≠ally is the high¬≠est form of Ô¨āat¬≠tery. ‚ÄúFor me, the fact that we built some¬≠thing that every¬≠one Ô¨Ānds them¬≠selves hav¬≠ing to build to¬≠day, is the biggest pos¬≠si¬≠ble com¬≠pli¬≠ment,‚ÄĚ he said.

Pricing of­ten comes up as a key blocker for or­ga­ni­za­tions who quickly feel like they are out­grow­ing Heroku, even if they re­ally love the de­vel­oper ex­pe­ri­ence.

‚ÄúPricing has al¬≠ways been a buga¬≠boo and we never solved it,‚ÄĚ Warner said. ‚ÄúAt Salesforce you had to make up mar¬≠gin on pric¬≠ing. I think you can scale Heroku‚ÄĒit runs some of the top 20 web¬≠sites in the world‚ÄĒbut you have to think about it dif¬≠fer¬≠ently.‚ÄĚ

Heroku is gen­er­ally priced per dyno, with a bunch of pre­mium add-ons and high-per­for­mance op­tions for en­ter­prise cus­tomers, so the cost goes up pretty quickly as your busi­ness grows. The high­est per­form­ing, 14GB dyno costs $500 per dyno per month, and that’s just the start.

‚ÄúSome are will¬≠ing to pay for that in¬≠cred¬≠i¬≠ble ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence, but for many that be¬≠came chal¬≠leng¬≠ing,‚ÄĚ RedMonk‚Äôs Governor said.

Take the soft¬≠ware test¬≠ing com¬≠pany Rainforest, which moved from Heroku to Google‚Äôs man¬≠aged Kubernetes ser¬≠vice (GKE) in 2019 af¬≠ter it started to reach the lim¬≠its of its data¬≠base plan and costs started to spi¬≠ral. ‚ÄúUntil late last year, Rainforest ran most of our pro¬≠duc¬≠tion ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tions on Heroku ‚Ķ it al¬≠lowed us to scale and re¬≠main ag¬≠ile with¬≠out hir¬≠ing a large ops team, and the over¬≠all de¬≠vel¬≠oper ex¬≠pe¬≠ri¬≠ence is un¬≠par¬≠al¬≠leled. But in 2018 it be¬≠came clear that we were be¬≠gin¬≠ning to out¬≠grow Heroku,‚ÄĚ Rainforest‚Äôs for¬≠mer se¬≠nior ar¬≠chi¬≠tect, Emanuel Evans, wrote in a com¬≠pany blog post.

Furthermore, Evans wrote, Heroku is ex­pen­sive, even with the sav­ings the com­pany made from be­ing able to run every­thing through a small op­er­a­tions team. But Heroku tipped from ex­pen­sive into too ex­pen­sive, at least for cer­tain com­pute-in­ten­sive work­loads, when Rainforest added some im­por­tant se­cu­rity-re­lated fea­tures, such as vir­tual pri­vate cloud.

Then there is the Ô¨Ān¬≠tech PensionBee, which built its mono¬≠lithic Node.js ap¬≠pli¬≠ca¬≠tion from the ground up on Heroku in 2015, un¬≠der¬≠pinned by Salesforce, with all data synced by a pre¬≠mium add-on prod¬≠uct called Heroku Connect.

PensionBee CTO, Jonathan Lister Parsons, sees the price con¬≠cerns around Heroku as overblown when to¬≠tal cost of own¬≠er¬≠ship is ac¬≠counted for. ‚ÄúI think about all the shit you don‚Äôt need to do with Heroku and it is a list with 20 op¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tional things on it,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúYes, it is ex¬≠pen¬≠sive com¬≠pared to AWS, but you are get¬≠ting a team of a thou¬≠sand peo¬≠ple who are there to run a ser¬≠vice that runs your code very well.‚ÄĚ

That be¬≠ing said, ‚ÄúHeroku Connect is still un¬≠ac¬≠cept¬≠ably ex¬≠pen¬≠sive and, as we grow and scale, it goes past the point where us¬≠ing that so¬≠lu¬≠tion makes sense‚ÄĒand they know that,‚ÄĚ Lister Parsons added.

A Salesforce spokesper¬≠son ac¬≠knowl¬≠edged Heroku‚Äôs cost but said, ‚ÄúCloud op¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tions are ex¬≠pen¬≠sive, and we need to be sure we‚Äôre adding all the costs up. If some¬≠one is com¬≠par¬≠ing IaaS costs to Heroku‚Äôs PaaS of¬≠fer¬≠ing, they may be over¬≠look¬≠ing the stafÔ¨Āng of de¬≠vops, pipelines, in¬≠te¬≠gra¬≠tions, and IaaS sub¬≠strate im¬≠pacts to op¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tional load.‚ÄĚ

...

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